Missouri Historical Review

Listing of titles and authors by volume

July 2006 (Vol. 100, No. 4)

“The Missouri Historical Review and the Civil War.” By William E. Parrish, pp. 188-196.

“The Ozark Short Line Railroad: A Failed Dream.” By H. Roger Grant, pp. 197-211.

“Seeking ‘The Great White Hope’: Heavyweight Boxing in Springfield, 1910-1912, Part 2.” By Arly Allen, pp. 212-223.

“Missouri’s Naval Militia: An Inland Area Navy.” By Robert P. Wiegers, pp. 224-238.

April 2006 (Vol. 100, No. 3)

“‘Building Useful Women’ from the Depths of Poverty: The Foundation and Establishment of the Girls’ Industrial Home and School in St. Louis, 1853-1916.” By Lisa G. Guinn, pp. 125-140.

“Kansas City’s African American ‘Immunes’ in the Spanish-American War.” By Roger D. Cunningham, pp. 141-158.

“Seeking ‘The Great White Hope’: Heavyweight Boxing in Springfield, 1910-1912” Part 1. By Arly Allen, pp. 159-173.

January 2006 (Vol. 100, No. 2)

“The Legacy of Squire Boone.” By Ike Skelton, pp. 63-71.

“The Father of Southeast Missouri: Louis Houck and the Coming of the Railroad.” By Joel P. Rhodes, pp. 72-86.

“Under Penalty of Death: Pierce City’s Night of Racial Terror.” By Jason Navarro, pp. 87-102.

“An Episcopal Priest’s Reflections on the Kansas City Riot of 1968.” By David Kerrigan Fly, pp. 103-112.

October 2005 (Vol. 100, No. 1)

“The Interstate Old Fiddlers Contest of 1926: WOS, Rural Radio Audiences, and Music Making in the Missouri State Capitol.” By Patrick Huber, pp. 2-18.

“Travelers and Travel’s ‘Significant “Others”’: Three Visitors to the Arkansas Territory in 1818-1819.” By Lou Ann Lange, pp. 19-39.

“Irish Echoes in Outstate Missouri.” By Howard Wight Marshall, pp. 40-53.

July 2005 (Vol. 99, No. 4)

“Explosion of the Steamboat Saluda: Tragedy and Compassion at Lexington, Missouri, 1852.” By William G. Hartley and Fred E. Woods, pp. 281-305.

“T. K. Whipple and the Literary Move to America.” By Lewis O. Saum, pp. 306-316.

“Having a Grand . . . Vacation,” pp. 317-337.

April 2005 (Vol. 99, No. 3)

“A Summer of Terror: Cholera in St. Louis, 1849.” By Linda A Fisher, pp. 189-211.

“Judge Napton’s Private War: Slavery, Personal Tragedy, and the Politics of Identity in Civil War-Era Missouri.” By Christopher Phillips, pp. 212-237.

“Southern Identity in Nineteenth-Century Missouri: Little Dixie’s Slave-Majority Areas and the Transition to Midwestern Farming.” By Robert W. Frizzell, pp. 238-260.

January 2005 (Vol. 99, No. 2)

“Navigating the White Road: White Cloud’s Struggle to Lead the Ioway Along the Path of Acculturation.” By Greg Olson, pp. 93-114.

A chief of the Ioway during the first third of the nineteenth century, White Cloud advocated that his people and other Native Americans “embrace the ‘civilized’ life of the white man.” His attempts at assimilation led him into conflict with his own people as well as with other tribes. Olson traces the movement of Europeans into the region that became northern Missouri and describes the contacts between Indians and whites and the conflicts that developed as the cultures interacted.

“‘I’ll Wade in Missouri Blood’: Daggs v. Frazier: A Case of Missouri Runaway Slaves.” By Robert J. Willoughby, pp. 115-138.

In 1848 nine slaves ran away from the Ruel Daggs farm in Clark County, Missouri. Representatives of the owner found the runaways two days later near Salem, Iowa, where townspeople prevented them from returning five of the party to Missouri. The owner later sued several of the townspeople. Willoughby examines the events that occurred in Salem and the legal proceedings through the published report of the trial and newspaper articles. He believes that Daggs v. Frazier was “‘the last major fugitive slave case, argued wholly on the [Fugitive] Slave Act of 1793.’”

“Life with Father: A Son’s Recollections of Senator Stuart Symington.” By Stuart Symington Jr., pp. 139-155.

This article is based on Stuart Symington Jr.’s remarks at the 2004 State Historical Society annual meeting. In it he provides an impression of the world in which Stuart Symington, a successful businessman, government official and four-time U.S. senator from Missouri, grew up and “the guidelines that shaped his careers in business and public life.” After discussing the senator’s career and his philosophy, Symington sums up his father’s life by noting that he was “tough, patriotic, chivalrous, humorous . . . humane [and] . . . competitive.”

October 2004 (Vol. 99, No. 1)

“Before Bass Pro: St. Louis Sporting Clubs on the Gasconade River.” By Lynn Morrow, pp. 1-23.

“The Water Wizard: John F. Wixford and the Purification of the St. Louis Water Supply in 1904.” By Christine Froechtenigt Harper, pp. 24-45.

“A Statistical Look at Twentieth-Century Missouri.” By Donald B. Oster, pp. 46-70.

July 2004 (Vol. 98, No. 4)

“Friends and Partners: William Clark, Meriwether Lewis, and Mid-America’s French Creoles.” By William E. Foley, pp. 270-282.

“Running the Lower Missouri River Gauntlet: The First Trial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.” By James M. Denny, pp. 283-313.

“Objects Worthy of Notice: The Wildlife Encountered by the Corps of Discovery,” pp. 314-323

April 2004 (Vol. 98, No. 3)

“A Founding Missourian: Duff Green and Missouri’s Formative Years, 1816-1825,” Part 2, by William S. Belko, pp. 117-200.

[See January 2004 abstracts below]

“Harry Truman: Federal Bushwhacker.” By Larry Wood, pp. 201-222.

Infamous Confederate bushwhackers such as William Quantrill and William “Bloody Bill” Anderson played such a large part in the Civil War in Missouri and Kansas that one may be led to believe that all the war’s legendary characters had rebel tendencies. Larry Wood introduces Jacob W. Terman, a Federal bushwhacker whose dastardly deeds approximated those of his Confederate counterparts. Terman, alias Harry Truman, worked as a Federal scout and spy. Often employing underhanded tactics, Terman remained at odds with some Union officials throughout most of the conflict. He continued his exploits after the war, being arrested for drunk and disorderly behavior in Huntsville, Missouri, after claiming he was there with Federal authority to restore civil law.

“Calamity and Glory: Phelim O’Toole, Mike Hester, and the Legacy of Heroism at the Southern Hotel Fire.” By Michael G. Tsichlis, pp. 223-248.

On April 11, 1877, two St. Louis superheroes were born out of the flames of the great Southern Hotel fire. Michael Tsichlis tells the story of Phelim O’Toole and Mike Hester, the two courageous firemen who saved several people from the six-story hotel. Tsichlis begins with an outline of that fateful day’s events and then describes how the men’s valiant acts affected the rest of their very different careers and lives. O’Toole, a family man, was lauded for the rest of his short life, until his death in the line of duty at age thirty-two. Hester, who lived to the age of eighty-nine, never married and had a quiet career in the fire department. He retired in 1895 after being passed over for the fire chief’s position for a second time.

January 2004 (Vol. 98, No. 2)

“A Founding Missourian: Duff Green and Missouri’s Formative Years, 1816-1825,” Part 1, by William S. Belko, pp. 93-114.

Duff Green is one of the most influential and controversial characters in the story of Missouri’s founding. He purchased, sold, and developed huge tracts of land in the state’s interior, founded several towns, practiced law in a prominent firm, started a lucrative mercantile business, served as a brigadier general in the territorial militia, and rubbed shoulders with the most recognized men in the territory. His active role in Missouri’s first constitutional convention made him one of the founding fathers of the state and senate, and he eventually served a term in both the Missouri House of Representatives and Senate. In this two-part essay, William S. Belko outlines Green’s contributions to the state from his arrival in the territory in 1816 through 1826, when he moved east to become more involved in the Jacksonian movement.

[for Part 2, see April 2004]

“A Quaker View of Black St. Louis in 1841.” By Thomas D. Hamm, pp. 115-120.

In early 1841, Gershom Perdue, a Quaker minister from Ohio, and his wife, Abigail, traveled from their home state to Lawrence, Kansas, with the goal of setting up a Quaker school for Shawnee Indians at their destination. During their journey, they passed through St. Louis, where they met with members of the city’s African American community. This article includes journal entries Perdue made during his stay in St. Louis, which offer a revealing account of the city’s black churches and of its leading African American citizen, John Berry Meachum.

“‘Just Like the Garden of Eden’: African-American Community Life in Kansas City’s Leeds.” By Gary R. Kremer, pp. 121-144.

During the era of segregation, it was difficult, if not sometimes impossible, for many African Americans to build a rich and rewarding life for themselves and their families. The African Americans living Kansas City’s Leeds neighborhood during the first half of the twentieth century, however, found a way to create a dignified and autonomous community of their own within the boundaries of the Jim Crow laws. Gary Kremer explores the heyday of this community, from 1915 to 1960, describing its formation, its religious and educational institutions, its festivals and traditions, the difficulties and joys of everyday life, and the family spirit that thrived there.

October 2003 (Vol. 98, No. 1)

“The Origins of Cape Catholicism: The Vincentian Presence in Cape Girardeau, 1828-1868.” By Douglas J. Slawson, pp. 1-23.

In the 1820s, an anti-Catholic sentiment swept through the U.S. due to suspicion of the church’s hierarchy and a wave of Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany. During this unlikely era, Cape Girardeau began its transformation from a thoroughly Protestant population to a Catholic mission center, eventually boasting a Catholic church, convent school, college, and boys’ academy and supplying religious services to points throughout southeast Missouri and into Illinois. Douglas J. Slawson outlines the community’s religious odyssey, tracking John Timon’s tireless missionary efforts in the area, the follow-up work of his colleagues, and the economic misfortunes of convert Ralph Daugherty, which led to the inexpensive acquisition of land on which to build church properties.

July 2003 (Vol. 97, No. 4)

“Populating Missouri, 1804-1821.” By Walter A. Schroeder, pp. 263-294.

At the time of the Louisiana Purchase, Americans already accounted for approximately half of the population in Upper Louisiana. Author Walter Schroeder looks at the people living in Missouri at the time of the purchase and the immigrants who rapidly settled in the area after the acquisition. Schroeder includes maps and charts in his examination of how the area’s population was counted, where people settled, the tension between pioneers and Native Americans, and how settlers developed the land. He notes that the “imprint of these Americans in early Missouri remains strong in the landscape” (p. 294).

Les Indiens Osages: French Publicity for the Traveling Osage,” edited by Margot Ford McMillan, pp. 295-333.

This article provides a translation of Les Indiens Osages, a French pamphlet that describes Osage tribal culture and documents the first days of six Osage representatives’ stay in France in 1827. The Native Americans’ arrival at Le Havre generated great fanfare. French citizens’ fascination with the Indians, at times, overwhelmed the visitors. Interest in the group dwindled, however, and the Osage were left to guide themselves through Europe after their escort deserted them. Using Les Indiens Osages and other sources, Margot McMillan traces the Osages’ voyage across the Atlantic, travels in Europe, and return to the United States in 1830.

“Robert R. Livingston, The Forgotten Architect of the Louisiana Purchase.” By Charles Nutter, pp. 334-350.

This reprinted article, prepared by Charles Nutter for the State Historical Society’s annual meeting luncheon in 1953, examines diplomat Robert Livingston’s vital role in acquiring the Louisiana territory for the United States. An important politician in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, Livingston was instructed by President Thomas Jefferson to obtain New Orleans from France. For sixteen months Livingston’s repeated overtures for the city largely fell on deaf ears. When Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte proposed selling the entire Louisiana territory, Livingston made a decisive move without the knowledge of the president and with little consultation with his newly arrived fellow diplomat, James Monroe. Livingston led the negotiations that doubled the size of the United States. Returning home a year before Livingston, Monroe received much of the credit for the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, which, Nutter contends, “he still receives, although wrongfully so. Monroe was useless to Livingston. The strong man led” (p. 350).

April 2003 (Vol. 97, No. 3)

“Commemorating the Battle of New Orleans: A Sabbatarian Controversy in the Missouri General Assembly, 1843.” By B. Darrell Jackson, pp. 169-189.

Following the War of 1812, Americans annually celebrated Andrew Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans on January 8. Prior to 1843, the Missouri General Assembly had commemorated the British defeat by passing resolutions to fire a victory salute. In 1843, however, January 8 fell on a Sunday, and conflict arose among Missouri’s statesmen about how to celebrate the battle on the Sabbath. The General Assembly became divided as the Democrats petitioned to honor Andrew Jackson and his victory on the eighth, and the Whigs were determined to let the Sabbath pass quietly. Against this backdrop, Darrell Jackson examines the religious and political differences between Missouri’s Democrats and Whigs in the 1840s.

“Royal Booth and the Baby Chick Capital of the World.” By Christopher Gordon, pp. 190-203.

In 1911 a Clinton High School assembly attracted Royal Booth to breeding and selling high-quality chickens and eggs. The monetary success from his endeavor convinced him to open the first commercial chicken hatchery west of the Mississippi River after his high school graduation. Booth Farms and Hatchery’s method of breeding only high-quality stock quickly became a lucrative family business and inspired other Henry Countians to open hatcheries. Christopher Gordon details how Booth’s method of poultry husbandry revolutionized the industry and helped keep Henry County prosperous through World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II.

“Beating the Odds in Missouri: Stuart Symington’s First Campaign for the Senate, 1952.” By James C.Olson, pp. 204-233.

Often referred to as Harry Truman’s “trouble shooter,” Stuart Symington found himself at a crossroads toward the end of the Truman administration. Urged by several Democrats from around the Missouri, Symington decided to campaign for the U.S. Senate despite numerous obstacles. Not only had he never held an elected position, he was not a native Missourian and had only resided in St. Louis for a short time. Additionally, his opponent in the Democratic primary, Buck Taylor, held endorsements from the Pendergast machine in Kansas City and Symington’s former boss, Harry Truman. Symington’s ability to connect with voters overcame these obstacles, and he defeated Taylor in the primary and the Republican incumbent, James Kem, in the general election. Through Stuart Symington’s memoirs and letters, James Olson follows Symington from his decision to run to his election to the Senate.

“Faces in History: Nineteenth-Century Portraits from the Collection of the State Historical Society of Missouri.” By Margaret Mattox, pp. 234-242.

This pictorial article highlights portraits exhibited in the Society’s Art Gallery. Margaret Mattox provides some background on the subjects featured in the exhibit, including early Missouri settlers such as John McIlvaine and John Slack as well as politicians such as Trusten Polk and William Switzler. Mattox also comments on the artists commissioned to paint the portraits.

January 2003 (Vol. 97, No. 2)

“The Other Anderson: Bloody Bill’s Brother Jim.” By Larry Wood, pp. 93-108.

Guerrilla warfare was a hallmark of the Civil War in Missouri, and the names of bushwhackers William Clarke Quantrill, Jesse James, and William “Bloody Bill” Anderson are well known. Larry Wood traces the guerrilla career of Jim Anderson, the younger brother of Bill. Although not as well known as his brother, Jim headed guerrilla bands under Bill’s command and on his own. He and his followers wounded and killed Union sympathizers and soldiers in several central and northern Missouri counties. Anderson did not surrender at the war’s end and eluded capture. He was killed in Texas in 1867.

“‘No Longer A Barrier’: Bridging the Missouri River in Lafayette County.” By Thomas J. Gubbels, pp. 109-130.

For decades Lafayette County residents in Lexington and Waverly struggled to overcome the transportation and trade barrier caused by the Missouri River. In 1922 the county’s civic leaders and businessmen led a drive to build bridges linking Lexington to Ray County and Waverly to Carroll County. The bridges’ proponents faced an uphill battle to complete the structures. They encountered reluctant taxpayers, contractor delays, hesitant engineers, and overly anxious citizens. Thomas Gubbels delves into the obstacles, solutions, and people involved during construction. The bridges finally opened to the public in 1925.

“‘Heat, Mutton and Beer’: The Fourth of July, 1938.” By Lynn Wolf Gentzler, pp. 131-139.

This essay features photographs taken by Simon C. “Si” Steinberg and Harold Riback of Columbia at a Fourth of July celebration and Democratic political rally. Held at Reed’s Lake in Callaway County in 1938, the event drew over five thousand people and included refreshments, games, and speeches by Democratic candidates. The main speaker was Bennett Champ Clark, who was running for reelection to the U.S. Senate. Steinberg and Riback’s photos provide an exceptional view of a 1930s political event and picnic.

October 2002 (Vol. 97, No. 1)

“Confluence of People and Place: The Chouteau Posts on the Missouri and Kansas Rivers.” By David Boutros, pp. 1-19

In 1816 fur trader Francois Chouteau traveled up the Missouri River and settled near the mouth of the Kansas River. Although he was not the first to establish a trading post near the confluence of the rivers, the location proved successful. Over the next few years, Chouteau established several other posts around the same area. Although traditionally acknowledged as the founder of Kansas City, little is known about Francois Chouteau. Many of the accepted stories about the fur trader stemmed from Westport founder John Calvin McCoy’s personal recollections and his 1860s interviews with other early settlers of the city. In this article David Boutros weighs the traditional McCoy stories against a variety of sources. Piecing together the information, Boutros “lay[s] out the plausible history of the Chouteaus” in early Kansas City.

“St.Louis Tourist Sportsmen: Urban Clubs in the Wetlands.” By Lynn Morrow, pp. 20-42.

In the 1880s a number of professional men from St. Louis established sporting clubs outside of the city in St. Charles and Lincoln Counties and in Illinois’s American Bottoms. Lynn Morrow explores the clubs’ purposes and transformation as they steadily grew in popularity over the next twenty years. Many of the clubs included preserving fish and game as a part of their objectives; however, stories of bagging hundreds of ducks in a weekend and trainloads of fowl and fish leaving the clubs indicate that not all sportsmen took preservation seriously. At their establishment, most clubs were hunting and fishing retreats for businessmen; gradually—largely due to accessible transportation—they became settings for family vacations. As the sloughs were drained and wetlands became farmlands in the latter years of the first decade of the twentieth century, many of the St. Louis sporting clubs closed or relocated to southern Missouri.

“The Washington University Teach-In: An Attempt to Promote Free and Open Debate on the Vietnam War.” By Laura Kirk, pp. 43-58.

In May 1965, in conjunction with colleges and universities throughout the United States, Washington University in St. Louis sponsored a teach-in on American policy in Vietnam. Laura Kirk explores this phenomenon, viewing the teach-ins as the beginning of unfettered debate on Southeast Asian foreign policy. She discusses the background of the teach-in and the Washington University faculty’s role in attempting to draw presidential advisers into the debate. Kirk describes the teach-in through the lenses of newspaper coverage and organizational committee documents.

“Duane Evans Lyon: A Sketch of an Artist.” By James W. Goodrich, pp. 59-72.

Born in Columbia, Missouri, Duane Lyon became a talented commercial artist with studios in Kansas City and, later, New York City. He worked in diverse media and on many types of art projects, ranging from greeting cards to parade floats to magazine and brochure illustrations. As a member of an antiaircraft battalion in France during World War I, Lyon painted numerous scenes and landscapes on blank postcards. Many of these wonderfully detailed works are in the Society’s art collection. James Goodrich provides an overview of Lyon’s life and his architectural and artistic works.

July 2002 (Vol. 96, No. 4)

“‘The Fault Finder’ of Kansas City: Roswell Field, 1885.” By Lewis O. Saum, pp, 257-276.

In this article, Lewis Saum considers the 1885 deliberations of Kansas City Timesjournalist Roswell Field. Inhis aptly titled column, “The Fault Finder,” Field took a variety of subjects to task. Included among the many topics he found fault with were organ-grinders, the Mikado craze, dependence on domestic servants, children eating with adults at boardinghouses, and speeding horse carriages on Kansas City’s Blue Avenue. In contrast to his lighthearted brother, poet Eugene Field, Roswell often expressed a staid attitude. Saum observes that the brothers’ differing dispositions raises the question of “how fully the two followed the differing paths of the frolicsome and the earnest.”

“The McKees Move to Texas: A Family’s Story.” By David R. Hoffman and Frances Hoffman, pp. 277-301.

In the 1870s, Audrain County residents John McKee and his second wife, Kate, were struggling to provide for their children. By 1875, McKee no longer owned his small farm, and his broom-making business was faltering. Although some considered it to be “a great undertaking” for people their age to travel, John (65), Kate (55), and their six youngest children left Missouri for Robinson, Texas, in a horse-drawn wagon. This article contains letters the family wrote prior to their journey and Kate McKee’s daily journal of the trip. The letters and journal depict the difficulties the family encountered before and during their migration to Texas.

“‘An Outrage on Humanity’: Martial Law and Military Prisons in St. Louis during the Civil War.” By Louis S. Gerteis, pp. 302-322.

Louis Gerteis completes his article on the Civil War in St. Louis by focusing on the Myrtle Street and Gratiot Street prisons in the city and the military prison in Alton, Illinois, all of which housed civilians arrested for disloyal sentiments and activities. He details problems caused by overcrowding, including disease and poor sanitation. Descriptions of prison conditions gleaned from prisoners’ letters are included. Gerteis also discusses Union investigations into disloyal activity in the area, particularly the actions of the members of the Order of American Knights.

April 2002 (Vol. 96, No. 3)

“‘A Friend of the Enemy’: Federal Efforts to Suppress Disloyalty in St. Louis During the Civil War.” By Louis S. Gerteis, pp. 165-187.

In the first of a two-part article, Louis Gerteis describes the efforts of Union military commanders and provost marshals to check Southern sympathizers in St. Louis. He traces the implementation of martial law in the city and other parts of Missouri and points out the difficulties military officers experienced in determining the proper punishment for various disloyal attitudes and acts. Gerteis also depicts the hardships experienced by the family members of St. Louis men who joined the Confederate army.

“Pendergast vs. Stark: Politics, Patronage, and the 1938 Supreme Court Democratic Primary.” By Patrick McLear, pp. 188-210.

Unlike many other historians, Patrick McLear does not believe that Governor Lloyd C. Stark deliberately challenged Kansas City political boss Thomas Pendergast for control of the state’s Democratic Party in this primary campaign. Instead, McLear asserts that “Pendergast, believing that Stark had no visible organization to sustain . . . a political rivalry, selected this political contest to embarrass the governor.” McLear examines events leading up to the campaign and Stark’s use of patronage to influence officeholders to support his candidate, James Douglas.

“‘Butcherin’Up the English Language a Little Bit’: Dizzy Dean, Baseball Broadcasting, and the ‘School Marms’ Uprising’ of 1946.” By Patrick Huber and David Anderson, pp. 211-231.

Patrick Huber and David Anderson focus on Dizzy Dean’s twenty-five-year career as a radio and television baseball announcer. Wildly popular with fans who enjoyed his “down-home approach” to announcing, other listeners objected to his “mangled grammar.” In what may have been a hoax, the English Teachers Association of Missouri reportedly filed a complaint against Dean with the Federal Communications Commission. The authors recount the statewide and national uproar caused by the publicity surrounding the alleged complaint.

January 2002 (Vol. 96, No. 2)

"On the Road to Dixie: A Missouri Confederate’s Review of the Civil War at its Midpoint.” By Thomas F. Curran, pp. 69-92.

In December 1861, Edward Herndon Scott, a young teacher, closed the doors of his school in Clinton County and joined the Confederate army. Though passages of his journal have been preserved, Scott’s Civil War journeys are more clearly revealed in a June 1863 letter to his father written after the soldier’s stay in the Alton, Illinois, military prison. While summarizing his experiences in the South, Scott strives to redeem himself and his cause to his father. Although the time spent in Alton prison ended Scott’s military career in the West, Curran also explores the paths the young Missourian took after his exchange. He served the remainder of the war as a member of Charles Hugh Woodson’s cavalry, the only Missouri-designated unit to serve in the eastern theater.

“PWA and WPA Courthouses in Missouri.” By Marian M. Ohman, pp. 93-118.

Marian Ohman’s article reviews nineteen Missouri courthouses built with Public Works Administration and Works Progress Administration funds during the Great Depression. Twelve of the nineteen counties were in the southern one-third of Missouri, the economically hardest hit area in the state. Residents of these communities, anxious to improve the image of their towns, found applying for and awaiting news of funding to be tedious. Missouri architects and local builders were often chosen to design and raise the new courthouses—the focal point of their communities. The author details local funding efforts, describes the structures, and depicts the reactions of local residents to the building programs.

“The Finest Treat His Ranch Could Offer: Lyndon Johnson and Deer Hunting.” By John L. Bullion, pp. 119-131.

John Bullion, in his account about deer hunting on Lyndon B. Johnson’s ranch, provides outsiders an intimate look at the president and the relationships he enjoyed with friends and their families. From hunting specially bred stock from the comfort of his car, to carefully selecting the guests, and on occasion, the weapons they used, Johnson expected his visitors to enjoy the ranch and its offerings as much as he did. Deer hunting was “the finest treat” the ranch offered, and whether hunting enthusiasts or not, visitors to the ranch were often required to demonstrate their manhood by killing a whitetail buck in the ranching environment meticulously created by Lyndon Johnson. Bullion presented a version of this article at the Society’s annual meeting luncheon on November 3, 2001.

October 2001 (Vol. 96, No. 1)

“The Fate of Steamboats: A Case Study of the 1848 St. Louis Fleet.” By William E. Lass, pp. 2-15.

William Lass details the use of steamboats in the nineteenth century on the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers. Although costly, inefficient, and somewhat hazardous, steamboats dominated river travel for sixty-five years. An important mode of transportation for hastening cross-country commerce, the 1848 St. Louis steamboat fleet, detailed throughout Lass’s account, presents readers with an “insightful picture of western steamboating.” The author describes the major costs of building and maintaining the steamboats as well as outlining the causes of their destruction. These boats had a relatively short lifespan, and they were often found to be unreliable and wanting of better construction. Steamboats were slowly abandoned as the railway system became a more popular way to move goods and passengers.

“‘Manumitted and Forever Set Free’: The Children of Charles Lee Younger and Elizabeth, a Woman of Color.” By Becky Carlson, pp. 16-31.

Charles Lee Younger, grandfather of the notorious Younger and Dalton gangs, left an unusual legacy for his families. After amassing a small fortune, Younger left explicit instructions in his 1852 will and a later codicil providing for his legal wife of forty-five years and their five children, his mistress/common-law wife and her seven children, of whom he acknowledged paternity, and, his slave/mistress, Elizabeth, and their two children, Catherine and Simpson. Becky Carlson provides a detailed record of the provisions Younger made in his will regarding Elizabeth and their children, on whom he bestowed his surname. Younger’s will manumitted Elizabeth, Catherine, and Simpson and provided for their needs. Elizabeth received a farm, and Younger arranged for the children’s education in a “free state.” Carlson details Catherine and Simpson’s lives throughout adulthood and examines the impact of their racial heritage on their lives.

“The Little School on the Hill: The Founding of Rockhurst College.” By Sean Brennan, pp. 32-45.

Sean Brennan provides a compelling historical account of the founding and early years of Rockhurst University in Kansas City. Chartered in 1910 by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), the establishment of the school was first proposed in 1885. Father Michael Dowling, an experienced college educator and administrator, led the drive to build the college after his arrival in the city in 1908. Despite numerous financial problems, the institution first opened its doors as a high school in September 1914. Three years later, Rockhurst offered its first college classes. In this article, Brennan discusses the decision made by the Jesuits to offer a four-year curriculum grounded in the classics and vocational instruction and describes the often disheartening financial problems that faced the founders during the school’s construction.

July 2001 (Vol. 95 No. 4)

“The Early Days of Grand Opera in Kansas City, 1860-1879.” By Harlan Jennings, pp. 349-371.

During the decades of the 1860s and 1870s, Harlan Jennings discovered, Kansas City played host to numerous concerts and “fourteen performances of ten different operas.” Throughout these two decades, except for the Civil War years, operatic and theatrical troupes regularly stopped in the city as they toured the Midwest and West. Jennings provides biographical information and tour schedules for many of the artists, some of whom traveled up the Missouri River prior to the completion of the railroad. Included among the performers were such nationally known and popular singers as Anna Bishop, Pasquale Brignoli, Adelaide Phillipps, and Emma Abbott. Using reviews from contemporary newspapers, Jennings describes the usually favorable reception given the singers in “this rough-and-tumble . . . outpost of civilization.” He concludes that the mid-nineteenth century Midwest “was not quite the cultural wasteland depicted in the history books.”

“Missouri Education at the Crossroads: The Phelan Miscalculation and the Education Amendment of 1870.” By J. Michael Hoey, pp. 372-393.

Catholic priest and Western Watchman editor David S. Phelan staged an energetic campaign against Missouri Superintendent of Public Schools Thomas A. Parker and his recommendation for passage of a constitutional amendment to ensure public school funds remained “solely for public education” in 1870. The debate over whether or not it was right to use the tax revenues of Catholic parents to support only public schools while shunning Catholic-sponsored parochial schools was a spirited one. Phelan and several priests in and around St. Louis believed public schools were “a poisoned chalice which the state holds up to our lips. We cannot and will not drink it.” J. Michael Hoey’s article concentrates on the philosophical and political debate that arose over the amendment. He explains how the parochial and public school systems, while sharing the same goal of educating children, approached it in totally different ways.

“Baptism by Fire: A Missourian in the Great War.” By Margaret Baker Graham, pp. 394-412.

Frank P. Baker was one of approximately 69,000 Missourians who served abroad in the armed forces during World War I. The superintendent of the Auxvasse public schools in Callaway County when the United States entered the war in 1917, Baker enlisted in the army and arrived for duty in France in January 1918. Over the next ten months, he engaged in several large and deadly campaigns as a machine gunner. Margaret Baker Graham’s article relies on the diary kept by the lieutenant. In it Baker recorded the routines of military life and described his role in battles. Following the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, he was cited by General John Pershing for stopping “an incipient panic and prevent[ing] a breach between the French and American lines.” The diary reveals a young man who “was willing to lay down my life for my country if need be.” He survived and eventually settled in Fulton, where he married and served a term as mayor.

"The University of Missouri—Columbia History Department: Training Scholars in the Black Experience.” By Arvarh E. Strickland, pp. 413-430.

In a survey of theses and dissertations written by University of Missouri-Columbia history graduate students, Arvarh Strickland, a long-time member of the faculty, found that forty-three studies completed between 1910 and 1994 focused on the African American experience. The bulk of these were completed after 1970 and dealt with slavery; a majority focused on African Americans in Missouri. Strickland describes many of these studies and examines their conclusions. According to the author, the studies, which treated increasingly diverse topics as the years passed, “compose an impressive body of scholarship.”

April 2001 (Vol. 95, No. 3)

“Denis Julien: Midwestern Fur Trader.” By James H. Knipmeyer, pp. 245-263.

Denis Julien was one of the early French fur traders in the midwestern United States. He traded for pelts with Indian tribes along the Des Moines, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers for several years in the early nineteenth century. The details of Julien’s life had largely remained a mystery to historians because of the scant number of dependable records that existed concerning his life. Using a variety of sources, Knipmeyer not only clears up several of the “mysteries” surrounding Julien, who, the author asserts, was not as “obscure” as previously thought, but also describes the intricacies and politics involved in the American fur trade.

“Civil Warfare in North Missouri: The Letters of Alexander C. Walker.” Edited by Leslie Anders, pp. 264-286.

Alexander C. Walker, a native of Delaware, migrated to Knox County, Missouri, in the 1850s. At the age of fifty-five, he enlisted in the Eleventh Missouri State Militia, Company K, which later became Company K of the Second Missouri State Militia. He served as forage master in both companies. Throughout much of 1862, Walker’s unit pursued rebel guerrillas and recruiters in northeast Missouri. He participated in battles at Newark and Kirksville against forces commanded by Colonel Joseph C. Porter. The Second Missouri State Militia was transferred to the Pilot Knob area in early 1863, and Walker described the “long and tiresome [winter] journey.” Following the regiment’s move to Bloomfield and a march to New Madrid, Walker died of pneumonia in Bloomfield in early April. His letters to family members describe military life and reflect the animosity felt by many northeast Missourians toward Southern sympathizers.

“The Union, the War, and Elvira Scott.” By Erin Kempker, pp. 287-301.

A longtime resident of Miami, on the Missouri River in Saline County, Elivra Scott began keeping a diary in 1860 and continued to record the events of her life until 1887. During the Civil War years, her diary entries chronicled the turmoil surrounding her and her family. A Southern sympathizer, Scott ran afoul of Union troops in the area in 1862 and was briefly arrested for using “treasonable language.” She grew accustomed to meeting the demands of guerrillas and troops from both sides of the conflict, often uncertain whether the men who entered her home were Union or Confederate. The family moved to St. Louis in 1863, where they remained until 1865. They returned to Miami following the end of the war. Using Scott’s diary and other sources, Kempker traces the effect of the war on one Missouri woman.

“Black Education in Civil War St. Louis.” By Lawrence O. Christensen, pp. 302-316.

Many African Americans, displaced by military activity during the Civil War, found their way to St. Louis. Organizations such as the Freedmen’s Relief Society, the Ladies Union Aid Society, the Western Sanitary Commission, and the American Missionary Association (AMA) became concerned about the freedmen’s plight. Although a few subscription schools for black students existed, some African American parents and teachers did not welcome attendance by the new arrivals. By the end of 1863, black ministers and several relief organizations, in particular the AMA, joined together to provide free schools for the increasing number of African American children. The effort often met with resistance from both the black and white communities. Despite many problems, according to Christensen, “the cooperative efforts of the various white organizations and the African American community furnished more black students with the rudiments of an education than would otherwise have been possible.”

January 2001 (Vol. 95, No. 2)

“‘This Noble and Philanthropic Enterprise’: The Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair of 1864 and the Practice of Civil War Philanthropy.” By Robert Patrick Bender, pp. 117-139.

By the summer of 1863, morale in the North had suffered considerably. Despite military victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, resentment over the draft and the war’s tremendous human cost taxed even the most patient citizens. Additionally, a number of volunteer agencies began to experience a shortage of the funds needed to carry out their work. Philanthropic leaders, recognizing the social, political, and financial situation, began to organize charity or “sanitary” fairs in hopes of restoring citizen morale, raising money, educating the public about their work, and recruiting volunteers. In this article, Robert Patrick Bender examines the Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair of 1864. He details how the fair, held in St. Louis under the supervision of the Western Sanitary Commission (WSC), was organized and carried out, while noting the unique rivalry between the locally run WSC and the centralized U.S. Sanitary Commission. The St. Louis fair put the different ideologies and practices of these two philanthropic organizations to the test and produced results that “served an important transitional role in the evolution of nineteenth-century American philanthropy.”

“‘One of the Best and Truest Characters in the State’: Joseph Lafayette Stephens.” By Marian M. Ohman, pp. 140-158.

Joseph Lafayette Stephens, a Cooper County native, played a significant role in the economic life of the mid-Missouri region and the state during the third quarter of the nineteenth century. As a courtroom lawyer and partner to George Graham Vest in Boonville prior to the Civil War, Stephens pleaded many cases before the Cooper County Circuit Court. After the war, he became heavily involved in banking and railroads. He worked diligently to bring railroads into the Cooper County area, eventually organizing investors to build lines from Tipton and Sedalia to Boonville. He served as a receiver for the Missouri Pacific Railroad during its financial troubles in the late 1870s. Also active in politics, Stephens was a major contender for the Democratic nomination for governor in 1872; a deadlocked convention chose a compromise candidate. His death in 1881 occasioned statewide tributes, including one from Vest, who pronounced Stephens’s “life useful, and his loss to the world very great.”

“Eugene Field and Theater: The Missouri Years.” By Lewis O. Saum, pp. 159-181

Eugene Field played a key role in explaining a variety of theatrical forms to the citizens of nineteenth-century Missouri. After some appearances on the stage in his younger days, Field later entered the world of journalism and continued to share his love for the theater through editorial commentary and satire. Lewis Saum relates that Field “acquainted his readers with forms about which they knew no great amount and about which many felt uneasiness. . . . He described; he criticized; he championed; he chided and parodied; and in nearly all, he spread a comforting glow over activities that had aroused suspicions of one kind or another over the ages.” Saum leads readers through Field’s theatrical commentary in newspapers in St. Joseph, St. Louis, and Kansas City during the late 1800s.

“Black Electoral Power in the Missouri Bootheel, 1920s-1960s.” By Will Sarvis, pp. 182-202.

Widespread settlement and agriculture became possible in the far southeastern portion of Missouri only after drainage and reclamation of the land during the early twentieth century. A sizeable migration of African American farm tenants, sharecroppers, and other agricultural workers from the South occurred in the 1920s and 1930s. Cotton agriculture dominated the region. The political system that evolved in the area included participation by African Americans, rather than the disfranchisement practiced in the Deep South. White and black leaders used economic and social pressure and encouraged multiple voting in the period before voter registration to influence the outcome of elections. Through oral interviews with black and white political leaders, Sarvis examined these practices and the development of bloc voting among the area’s African Americans. He has found that “black leader recognized their opportunities and . . . advanced their cause.”

October 2000 (Vol. 95, No. 1)

“‘Endangering the Peace of Society’: Abolitionist Agitation and Mob Reaction in St. Louis and Alton, 1836-1838.” By Bonnie E. Laughlin, pp. 1-22.

The St. Louis area witnessed two incidents of mob action from 1836 to 1838. The first incident occurred in the city of St. Louis on April 28, 1836, when Francis McIntosh, a free mulatto, was tied to a tree and incinerated by a mob of “gentlemen of property and standing” immediately after he murdered a police officer. The second action took place on November 7 of the following year in Alton, Illinois, and resulted in the death of prominent abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy. Bonnie E. Laughlin details the events that led up to the incidents and the reactions of area citizens and officials to them. She demonstrates how “gentlemen of property and standing” in both communities resorted “to mob action to preserve their community from the perceived abolitionist threat to the social order.”

"‘Communist Progress’: The Workingmen’s Party and St. Louis Educational Politics, 1877-1878.” By Stephen L. McIntyre, pp. 23-45.

The Workingmen’s Party of the United States of America enjoyed a large and active chapter in St. Louis during the latter years of the 1870s. The party helped organize a citywide general strike in July 1877 that the city’s business leaders responded to with an extralegal force and the arrests of several party leaders. The Workingmen then focused their efforts on the 1877 school board elections, to correct what they saw as inequalities in the educational opportunities accorded students from upper-class families compared with middle- and lower-class children. Stephen McIntyre chronicles the intricacies of the conflict, reports on the results achieved by the party’s candidates, and explains the consequences of the election’s outcome.

“‘Gentlemen, Reach for All’: Toppling the Pendergast Machine, 1936-1940.” By Patrick McLear, pp. 46-67.

Thomas J. Pendergast headed the Democratic political machine in Kansas City from the 1910s through the 1930s. Election fraud charges investigated by federal grand juries in 1937 and 1938 resulted in numerous indictments and convictions of poll workers and lessened the machine’s control. Many historians have concluded that Governor Lloyd C. Stark and President Franklin Roosevelt played key roles in Pendergast’s downfall and his conviction for income tax evasion. In this article, Patrick McLear argues that the New Deal’s attack on organized crime, including politically associated criminal activity, and divisive factions within the Democratic Party in Missouri were responsible for the machine’s collapse.

“Lake Placid: ‘A Recreational Center for Colored People in the Missouri Ozarks.’” By Gary R. Kremer and Evan P. Orr, pp. 68-85.

Prior to the creation of Lake Placid, many African Americans were forced to gather in small, segregated corners of recreational areas, such as Swope Park in Kansas City. In 1934, Dr. P. C. Turner and J. M. Sojourner decided to take a bold step and create a recreational outlet for blacks in Missouri. Turner, at that time a prominent doctor and superintendent of General Hospital No. 2 in Kansas City, and Sojourner, owner of the Sojourner Press in Kansas City, purchased property in Morgan County and began to build Lake Placid. Turner’s hope for Lake Placid was to create “a place to relax without having to suffer the indignities of racial segregation.” Gary Kremer and Evan Orr present several personal accounts by lot owners about the early days of Lake Placid, as well as examine the evolution of the recreational area from inception to the present.

July 2000 (Vol. 94, No. 4)

“Title Page to a Great Tragic Volume”: The Impact of the Missouri Crisis on Slavery, Race, and Republicanism in the Thought of John C. Calhoun and John Quincy Adams. By Chandra Miller, pp. 365-388.

Not only were the residents of Missouri divided about the slavery issue during the quest for statehood, but also the controversy caused two friends, John C. Calhoun and John Quincy Adams, to become “increasingly committed to antagonistic positions on slavery and its place in American republican government.” Although both nationalists, Calhoun and Adams “formulated very different conceptions of American republicanism.” In the 1830s, once close friends became foes committed to opposing views on slavery and race. In this article, Chandra Miller examines conversations, speeches, and writings of the two men during the Missouri Compromise controversy and determines that their views on slavery, race, and republicanism began to crystallize at an earlier date the usually cited by historians.

“Calculated Confederate: Claiborne Fox Jackson and the Strategy for Secession in Missouri.” By Christopher Phillips, pp. 389-414.

Claiborne Fox Jackson, who assumed the Missouri governorship in January 1861, has remained one of the state’s most controversial leaders. In this article, Phillips examines Jackson’s brief tenure as governor and the concurrent events impinging on the state. He traces Jackson’s efforts to direct a divided citizenry toward secession while portraying himself as an “indefatigable defender” of the state’s neutrality. In the end, events moved too quickly for Jackson to lead his state into the Confederacy. The governor was forced to flee into southwest Missouri and Arkansas, and a provisional government maintained the state’s allegiance to the Union.

“Unlikely Activism: O. K. Armstrong and Federal Indian Policy in the Mid-Twentieth Century.” By Larry W. Burt, pp. 415-433.

Orland Kay “O. K.” Armstrong, from Willow Springs and the Springfield area, was a well-known author and conservative political activist from the 1930s to the 1970s. In this article, Larry Burt examines Armstrong’s interest in federal Indian policy and his ultimate belief in the policies of assimilation and, later, termination. Both assimilationists and terminationists “believed their own culture to be superior to that of the Indians and supported bans on expressions of Indianism with private landownership.” In the 1940s and 1950s, Armstrong wrote a series of articles in Reader’s Digest that “championed a return to government policies that encouraged assimilating Indians into mainstream American institutions and life.” Burt dissects each article’s content and then associates it with the practice of federal Indian policy at the time they were written. By the mid-1960s, assimilation was “largely discredited” as a viable federal Indian policy. Armstrong, despite evidence that suggested the policies he supported was unsuccessful, never wavered in his beliefs.

“Show Me Missouri History: Celebrating the Century,” Part 3. By Linda Brown-Kubisch and Christine Montgomery, pp. 434-462.

The final installment of this three-part photographic essay looks at the history of life in the state from the declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941, until the end of the 1960s. The illustrations and text will be incorporated into a video surveying the last one hundred years in Missouri.

April 2000 (Vol. 94, No. 3)

When Expectations Exceed Reality: The Missouri Expedition of 1819. By Jonathan M. Jones, pp. 241-263.

In 1819, the U.S. War Department sponsored the “Missouri Expedition” a major operation to the Western frontier. Government officials hoped to establish military post near the “very profitable border” British fur trade around the Mandan Village in present-day North Dakota and “eventually take over the trade from the Hudson’s Bay Company.” Despite their lofty ambitions, the mission, led by Colonel Henry Atkinson, was a failure. Jones explains how trouble beset the mission’s contractor, Kentucky businessman James Johnson, and his brother, Congressman Richard Johnson, from the beginning. Ultimately, the operation failed because “the War Department moved too quickly, resulting in a poorly timed, planned, and executed expedition.”

“‘I am Hoping for a Speedy Reunion’: The Civil War Correspondence of Private Henry Hoberg.” By Jarod H. Roll, pp. 264-286.

Henry Hoberg, of Warren County, served in the 33rd Missouri Volunteer Infantry from 1862 to 1865. In seven extant letters written to his family during his stint in the military, Hoberg sheds light on the life of the “common soldier” during the Civil War. He offers up “lucid accounts of battle, ceaseless prayer for divine blessing, and meditations on the nature of war and life” in his correspondence. Roll helps explain the soldier’s experience in relation to the larger war and provides details of his life not mentioned in the letters. He ends his article with a description of Hoberg’s life in the years following the conflict.

“‘A Paying Proposition’: The Jerome Bridge in Phelps County.” By David C. Austin, pp. 287-302.

Tourism in Phelps County boomed in the 1920s. It was most likely the increased numbers of tourists and motor vehicles flocking to the resorts in Jerome and Arlington that “prompted the investment scheme to construct a private toll bridge across the Gasconade River, linking the newly built U.S. Route 66 with the nearby Jerome resorts.” In 1927 several prominent Rolla businessmen created the Jerome Bridge Company and invited the public to invest in what they promised would be a profitable venture. Investors believed “their toll bridge would be a lucrative gateway to the vacation amenities at Jerome, while incidentally widening Rolla’s trading territory.” Although creating a more convenient passage for travelers, the bridge simply did not generate the revenue hoped for, and the structure was eventually sold to the State of Missouri.

“Show Me Missouri History: Celebrating the Century,” Part 2. By Linda Brown-Kubisch and Christine Montgomery, pp. 303-328.

This photographic essay examines many aspects of life in the state from 1920 to the United States’s declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941, and against Germany and Italy on three days later. The illustrations and text will be incorporated into a video surveying the last one hundred years in Missouri.

January 2000 (Vol. 94, No. 2)

“Captain Francisco Ríu y Morales and the Beginnings of Spanish Rule in Missouri.” By Gilbert C. Din, pp. 121-145.

Captain Francisco Ríu y Morales served as the first Spanish commandant in Missouri, 1767-1769. Sent with a contingent of laborers and soldiers to establish a fort at the mouth of the Missouri River, Ríu proved to be an inept commander whose stay in the Spanish colony of Upper Louisiana was a study in disaster. Din examines Ríu's expedition from its point of departure in Spain in 1766 to its return to Cuba in 1769. He concludes Spanish government and army officials as well as Antonio de Ulloa, governor of Louisiana, and the men on the expedition must share the blame for the problems experienced by the mission.

“Impeachment Proceedings as a Partisan Tool: The Trial of Judge David Todd.” By Dennis K. Boman, pp. 146-159.

Supporters of Andrew Jackson in the Missouri House brought impeachment proceedings against David Todd, judge of Missouri's First Judicial Circuit, in late 1828. A supporter of John Quincy Adams, Todd became the focus of the Jacksonian legislators' 'hostility . . . against the Judiciary generally.'” In this article, Boman focuses on Todd's trial before the Senate. He examines the articles of impeachment, which accused the judge of committing ”misdemeanors in office with corrupt intent,” and Todd's defense, presented by central Missouri lawyer Abiel Leonard. The author concludes that Todd's exoneration by the Senate ”served as a check to the House's partisanship.”

“Memory, Myth, and Musty Records: Charles Woodson's Missouri Cavalry in the Army of Northern Virginia,” Part 2. By Thomas F. Curran, pp. 160-175.

This article completes the story of Charles Woodson's Civil War service with the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. The author details the movements of Woodson's First Missouri Cavalry from May 1864 until the end of the war and provides information about some of the members during the postwar years. Woodson returned to Chariton County, Missouri, after the war, and Curran describes his later life in some detail. He closes the article with suggesting possible reasons that Woodson did not reveal his connection to the First Missouri Cavalry in postwar biographical accounts.

“Show Me Missouri History: Celebrating the Century,” Part 1. By Linda Brown-Kubisch and Christine Montgomery, pp. 176-198.

This photographic essay examines many aspects of life in the state during the first twenty years of the twentieth century. The illustrations and text will be incorporated into a video surveying the last one hundred years in Missouri.

October 1999 (Vol. 94,No. 1)

“'A High Wall and a Deep Ditch': Thomas Hart Benton and the Compromise of 1850.” By John D. Morton. pp. 1-24.

Characterizing the rift between the pro- and anti-Benton factions in the Missouri Democratic Party prior to the 1850 election, veteran Senator Thomas Hart Benton said, “Between them and me, henceforth and forever, a high wall and a deep ditch! and no communication, no compromise, no caucus. . . .” The senator's partisan political aims, which centered in 1850 on the legislative race in Missouri, shaped much of his policy making during the first session of the Thirty-first Congress. This article explores Benton's legislative behavior during that time and illustrates the impact of both the federal form of government on the party system and of state party politics on national governance.

“Memory, Myth, and Musty Records: Charles Woodson's Missouri Cavalry in the Army of Northern Virginia,” Part 1. By Thomas F. Curran. pp. 25-41.

From July 1863 to the end of the Civil War, Charles Woodson, a resident of Chariton County, Missouri, commanded Company A, First Missouri Cavalry, the only Missouri unit to serve in the Army of Northern Virginia. Thomas F. Curran chronicles Woodson's military service in Missouri during the early years of the war, his imprisonment, and his return to service in the Confederate Army as a commander of a cavalry unit. Part 1 of the article ends with a description of the Battle of New Market, Virginia, in May 1864, in which Woodson and his Missourians played a vital role.

“Isidor Bush and the Bushberg Vineyards of Jefferson County.” By Siegmar Muehl. pp. 42-58.

In 1822, Isidor Bush was born in Prague's ghetto. He immigrated to the United States in 1849, living first in New York, where he published a German-Jewish weekly newspaper and operated a stationery store, and later moving to St. Louis to join the grocery business. While the exact reason for his foray into grape culture remains uncertain, by 1868, Bush had become the owner of Bushberg Vineyards, a business that soon became renowned throughout the United States and Europe for its catalogs and contributions to grape culture. This article traces the development of that viticultural enterprise, from its inception to its demise, and its impact on the grape industry.

“The President and the Emperor: How Samuel Spahr Laws Found an Elephant and Lost His Job.” By Maurice M. Manring. pp. 59-79.

Samuel Spahr Laws, who held degrees in divinity, law, and medicine in addition to inventing the stock ticker while serving as vice president of Wall Street's Gold Exchange, became president of the University of Missouri in Columbia in 1876. His controversial tenure ended in 1889. During those years, Laws managed to alienate students, faculty, and legislators. Manring examines Laws's presidency in this article, with particular emphasis on his relations with legislators. Laws's purchase of an elephant skeleton and carcass for the University's natural history museum in the face of legislative opposition precipitated his downfall.

July 1999 (Vol. 93, No. 4)

“'Springfield is a Vast Hospital': The Dead and Wounded at the Battle of Wilson's Creek.” By William Garrett Piston. pp. 345-366.

During the early months of the Civil War, neither the Confederate nor the Union army was adequately prepared for handling the post-battle treatment of the wounded and the burial of the dead. The Battle of Wilson's Creek, only the second major engagement of the war, provides a stage for William Garrett Piston's study of the management of casualties and the subsequent effects on the surviving troops and the civilians of Springfield. Prepared better to treat illnesses than casualties, the military forces involved lacked sufficient medical personnel, supplies, and transportation to care for the wounded. Hundreds of soldiers had to drop out of the battle to assist their injured comrades, buildings designated as military hospitals overflowed, and townspeople were forced to care for recovering soldiers in their own homes. Even high-ranking officers fell victim to the lack of preparation, as the story of Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon's repeatedly bumbled interment suggests. Piston's article provides a unique perspective on an often overlooked facet of the Civil War.

“Stories of Everyday Living: The Life and Letters of Margaret Bruin Machette.” By Margaret Baker Graham. pp. 367-385.

Margaret Bruin Machette, born in St. Charles County in 1817, assumed responsibility for her five children following the untimely death of her husband in 1851. Moving from St. Charles to Fulton by 1856, she later ran a boardinghouse for young men attending Westminster College. Her letters to her daughters describe domestic life during the last half of the nineteenth century. In her correspondence, Machette discusses the everyday routine and the out-of-the-ordinary events experienced by her family—a daughter’s pregnancy and a son’s move from the Presbyterian to the Baptist clergy, cold weather, war, the devastation wrought by grasshoppers during the 1870s—and comments on Fulton residents and occurrences.

“Some Private Advice on Publishers: Correspondence Between Laura C. Redden and Samuel L. Clemens.” By Judy Yaeger Jones. pp. 386-396.

An 1858 graduate of the Missouri School for the Deaf in Fulton, Laura C. Redden achieved prominence as a journalist, author, and poet under her nom de plume of Howard Glyndon. Although deaf, Redden successfully navigated the hearing world, serving as a war correspondent for the St. Louis Missouri Republican in Civil War Washington, D.C., and publishing at least three books of poetry. In 1881 she sought advice about a proposal to write a book on Mormonism from fellow Missourian Samuel Clemens. In the exchange of letters printed in this article, Clemens discusses the financial arrangements he has negotiated with a publisher for a forthcoming book, probably Life on the Mississippi.

“Toilers of the Cities and Tillers of the Soil: The 1889 St. Louis 'Convention of the Middle Classes.'” By Michael J. Steiner. pp. 397-416.

In an attempt to advance the cause of the common laborer, the Northern and Southern Farmers' Alliances and the Knights of Labor gathered in December 1889 in St. Louis to discuss the fusion of their organizations. Tracing the roots of agricultural and industrial laborers' dissatisfaction, author Michael J. Steiner then chronicles their separate efforts to effect change and finally their attempt at the 1889 convention to consolidate in order to create a more powerful presence as members of the “producing class.” Though the convention failed to produce a single, unified organization of industrial and agricultural laborers, Steiner contends that it provided an arena for communication and ideas about labor reform that would later be realized.

April 1999 (Vol. 93, No. 3)

“Campaigning Through Missouri: The Civil War Journal of Robert Todd McMahan, Part 2.” Edited by Dennis K. Boman. pp. 241-256.

This article continues the edited excerpts from Robert McMahan’s Civil War journal begun in the January 1999 issue of the Missouri Historical Review. Dating from October 1862 to April 1863, these entries recount McMahan’s service in southwestern Missouri with Captain Job Stockton’s Light Artillery Battery (later the Twenty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery). McMahan describes a trip escorting a supply train from Fort Scott, Kansas, to northwestern Arkansas, camp life, and routine military marches. In many of these excerpts, the artilleryman depicts the extreme enmity existing between pro-Southern and Union forces and the depredations experienced by civilians in the area.

“Eugene Field and the Political Journalism of St. Joseph.” By Lewis O. Saum. pp. 257-276.

During the mid-1870s, Eugene Field, later known as “The Children's Poet,” made a living as a journalist in St. Joseph at a time when the fiery politics of the postbellum nation dominated newspapers. St. Joseph's press community centered around the two leading newspapers: J. H. R. Cundiff's Democratic Daily Gazette and C. B. Wilkinson's Republican Morning Herald. Field, a staunch Republican whose political opinions were oftentimes revealed through witty verse, found employment with the Gazette. In this article, Saum explores the political friction amongst St. Joseph's leading newspapermen, the resulting war of printed words, and Field's insightful observations.

“The Visual Arts in Early Kansas City.” By George Ehrlich. pp. 277-292.

Founded in 1839, Kansas City has long been a regional center for the display of visual art. Touring companies with panoramic paintings on diverse subjects visited the city as early as the mid-1850s and continued to arrive into the 1880s. Art exhibitions and lantern slide programs also attracted audiences. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, artists and vendors who supplied art materials had a visible presence in the city. The Kansas City Art Association’s School for Fine Arts, the forerunner of the Kansas City Art Institute, and William Rockhill Nelson’s Western Gallery of Art also date from this period. These early enterprises laid the foundation for the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art and other regional cultural institutions.

“'Our Company Feels that the Ozarks are a Good Investment . . .': The Pierce Pennant Tavern System.” By Keith A. Sculle. pp. 293-307.

In July 1928, Pierce Petroleum Corporation opened a Springfield, Missouri, highway terminal consisting of a bus station equipped with a restaurant, a soda fountain, and rest rooms; a gas station; and a grease house with car washing facilities. This “tavern” was the first of a series that would, under the direction of Pierce's president, Edward D. Levy, target the Missouri and Oklahoma Ozarks for economic development and cater to the automobile traveler. Pierce Pennant Taverns sprang up in Rolla and Columbia, Missouri, and in Miami and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lavish hotels were added to some of the taverns, but the project fizzled out before it could be completed. Sculle examines the implementation of this innovative venture and its and subsequent disintegration during the Great Depression.

January 1999 (Vol. 93, No. 2)

“Punishment Under the Law or by the Cudgel: The Case of William P. Darnes, 1840.” By Perry McCandless. pp. 121-132.

In June 1840, William P. Darnes, a carpenter, struck down Andrew Jackson Davis, the proprietor of the St. Louis Missouri Argus, on a street in St. Louis. Incensed by an editorial written by William P. Gilpin, the newspaper's editor, Darnes had challenged Davis to a duel and been rebuffed by the publisher. The subsequent indictment and trial of Darnes for manslaughter revealed the animosities that existed within and between various ranks of St. Louis society. In this article, McCandless examines the trial and the defense attorneys' contention that Darnes had a right “to take whatever action was necessary to protect his good name and character.”

“Campaigning Through Missouri: The Civil War Journal of Robert Todd McMahan, Part 1.” Edited by Dennis K. Boman. pp. 133-148.

Robert T. McMahan, a native of Ohio, enlisted in the Second Ohio Volunteer Cavalry in August 1861. He accompanied his unit to Missouri in January 1862 and served much of his enlistment on the state's western border. In October 1862, McMahan was drafted into an artillery battery, which became the Twenty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Light Artillery. Boman has edited excerpts from McMahan's journal that recount the Ohioan's service in Missouri. In this part of the article, which will be completed in the April 1999 issue of the Missouri Historical Review, McMahan describes his railroad journey from Cincinnati, Ohio, to St. Joseph, Missouri, and his unit's initial encounters with Confederate guerrillas.

“Stretching the Social Pattern: The President's Fair Employment Committee and St. Louis.” By Andrew E. Kersten. pp. 149-164.

The defense mobilization that began in 1940 in response to World War II helped St. Louis and the rest of the country rebound from the Great Depression. The federal government spent millions of dollars in the St. Louis area on new facilities, hiring over twenty thousand construction workers. Despite the creation of the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941 to enforce the ban on employment discrimination in war industries, only about three thousand of these positions were held by African Americans. In spite of efforts led by St. Louis civil rights groups and the FEPC throughout the war period, most of the city's companies continued to discriminate both in the hiring of African Americans and in their treatment in the workplace. Kersten examines these efforts to break the employment barriers in a city that was called at the time “one of the most segregated cities in the nation.”

“The Scruggs-Vandervoort-Barney Art Collection.” By Marian M. Ohman. pp. 165-185.

In 1946, the Associated American Artists joined efforts with Scruggs-Vandervoort-Barney, one of St. Louis's premier department stores, to commission an original collection of paintings. Fourteen artists were chosen by the association to travel to Missouri and paint artworks that would depict the history and culture of the state. Two years later, ninety-nine paintings comprised the collection titled Missouri: Heart of the Nation. The author explores the events surrounding the project and how the University of Missouri ultimately acquired the collection for permanent display.

October 1998 (Vol. 93, No. 1)

“Missouri's Society and Economy in 1821.” By Lewis E. Atherton. pp. 2-25.

“James and Robert Aull--A Frontier Missouri Mercantile Firm.” By Lewis E. Atherton. pp. 26-48.

“Life, Labor, and Society in Boone County, Missouri, 1834-1852, As Revealed in the Correspondence of an Immigrant Slave Owning Family from North Carolina.” Part 1. By Lewis E. Atherton. pp. 49-73.

July 1998 (Vol. 92, No. 4)

“Major Alphonso Wetmore's Diary of a Journey to Santa Fe, 1828.” Introduction by F. F. Stephens. pp. 354-370.

“Travel into Missouri in October, 1838.” By Eduard Zimmermann. pp. 371-379.

“Martha J. Woods Visits Missouri in 1857.” Edited by Donald H. Welsh. pp. 380-392.

“The Civil War Letters of Colonel Bazel F. Lazear.” Edited by Vivian Kirkpatrick McLarty. pp. 393-406.

“Some Aspects of Black Education in Reconstruction Missouri: An Address by Richard B. Foster.” Edited by Antonio F. Holland and Gary R. Kremer. pp. 407-420.

April 1998 (Vol. 92, No. 3)

“The Beginnings of Missouri Legislation.” By Isidor Loeb. pp. 222-237.

“The New Madrid and Other Earthquakes in Missouri.” By Francis A. Sampson. pp. 238-253.

“David Barton, John Rice Jones and Edward Bates: Three Missouri State and Statehood Founders.” By Floyd C. Shoemaker. pp. 254-270.

“The Battle of Pilot Knob, Iron County, Missouri, September 27, 1864.” By Richard S. Brownlee. pp. 271-296.

“Richard Campbell: The Missouri Years.” By James W. Goodrich. pp.297-309.

January 1998 (Vol. 92, No. 2)

“Rumors of a Little Rebellion in Dixie: Real Women and Their Region.” By Margaret Ripley Wolfe. pp. 106-118.

“Missouri from 1849 to 1861.” By Charles M. Harvey. pp. 119-134.

“Propaganda and the Kansas-Missouri War.” By Lloyd Lewis. pp. 135-148.

“Sobriquets of Missouri and Missourians.” By David D. March. pp. 149-167.

October 1997 (Vol. 92, No. 1)

“'Amidst Trials and Troubles': Captain Samuel Churchill Clark, C.S.A.” By William C. Winter. pp. 1-17.

“Caissons and Calamity: The Tragedy and Triumph of Eads Bridge.” By Kelli Richardson. pp.18-26.

“'Our Schools Are Not Charitable Institutions': Class, Gender, Ethnicity, and the Teaching Profession in Nineteenth-Century St. Louis.” By Stephen L. McIntyre. pp. 27-44.

“Tom Benoist: Pioneer Early Bird of St. Louis.” By Thomas Reilly. pp. 45-60.

July 1997 (Vol. 91, No. 4)

“A Diminished Landscape: The Life and Death of Major Robert Henry Smith.” By Kim Allen Scott. pp. 353-372.

“The Wild Missouri Grape and Nineteenth-Century Viticulture.” By Siegmar Muehl. pp. 373-384.

“Christian Von der Ahe, the St. Louis Browns, and the World's Championship Playoffs, 1885-1888.” By Larry G. Bowman. pp. 385-405.

“Missouri's Turn-of-the-Century First Couple: Lawrence 'Lon' Vest and Margaret Nelson Stephens.” Part 2. By Marian M. Ohman. pp. 406-430.

April 1997 (Vol. 91, No. 3)

“The Jewish Hospital of St. Louis: Its Formative Years.” By Burton A. Boxerman. pp. 229-249.

“Missouri's Turn-of-the-Century First Couple: Lawrence 'Lon' Vest and Margaret Nelson Stephens.” Part 1. By Marian M. Ohman. pp. 250-274.

“Weltmer, Stanhope, and the Rest: Magnetic Healing in Nevada, Missouri.” By Patrick Brophy. pp. 275-294.

“It Finally Happened Here: The 1968 Riot in Kansas City, Missouri.” By Joel P. Rhodes. pp. 295-315.

January 1997 (Vol. 91, No. 2)

“The Origin and Development of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways Project.” By Stephen N. Limbaugh. pp. 121-132.

“Trial of the Century!: The Acquittal of Frank James.” By J. Michael Cronan. pp. 133-153

“J. West Goodwin of the Bazoo: Friend and Foil of Eugene Field.” By Lewis O. Saum. pp. 154-167.

“Criminal Aspects of the Pendergast Machine.” By Lawrence H. Larsen and Nancy J. Hulston. pp. 168-180.

October 1996 (Vol. 91, No. 1)

“The Platte Earth Controversy: What Didn't Happen in 1836.” By Christopher M. Paine. pp. 1-23.

“Basketville and the Roadside Craftspeople on Route 66.” By Elbert I. Childers and John F. Bradbury, Jr. pp. 24-34.

“Sze-Kew Dun: A Chinese-American Woman in Kirksville.” By Huping Ling. pp. 35-51.

“'From Two Mules to Twelve-Row Equipment': An Oral History Interview with Maxwell Williams, Bootheel Farm Manager.” By C. Ray Brassieur. pp. 52-85.

July 1996 (Vol. 90, No. 4)

“'A Respectable Independence': The Early Career of John O'Fallon.” By Mary Ellen Rowe. pp. 393-409.

“World War I in Missouri.” Part 2. By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 410-428.

“Prelude to Greatness: Stanley Musial and the Springfield Cardinals of 1941.” By James N. Giglio. pp. 429-452.

“Stuart Symington and Harry S. Truman: A Mutual Friendship.” By Debra K. Pitts. pp. 453-479.

April 1996 (Vol. 90, No. 3)

“Bob Hannegan and Harry Truman's Vice Presidential Nomination.” By Thomas F. Eagleton and Diane L. Duffin. pp. 265-283.

“'This Magnificent New World': Thomas Hart Benton's Westward Vision Reconsidered.” By John D. Morton. pp. 284-308.

“Reporting From an Enemy's Land: The Indiana Letters of 'Chincoupin,' 1861.” Edited by Jeffrey L. Patrick. pp. 309-329.

“World War I in Missouri.” Part 1. By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 330-354.

January 1996 (Vol. 90, No. 2)

“'I Well Remember': David Holmes Conrad's Recollections of St. Louis, 1819-1823.” Part 2. Edited by James W. Goodrich and Lynn Wolf Gentzler. pp. 129-165.

“'Good Water & Wood but the Country is a Miserable Botch': Flatland Soldiers Confront the Ozarks.” By John F. Bradbury, Jr. pp. 166-186.

“Mount Holyoke of the Midwest: Virginia Alice Cottey, Mary Lyon, and the Founding of the Vernon Seminary for Young Ladies.” By Debbie Mauldin Cottrell. pp. 187-198.

“'Yours for the Race': The Life and Work of Josephine Silone Yates.” By Gary R. Kremer and Cindy M. Mackey. pp. 199-215.

October 1995 (Vol. 90, No. 1)

“'I Well Remember': David Holmes Conrad's Recollections of St. Louis, 1819-1823.” Part 1. Edited by James W. Goodrich and Lynn Wolf Gentzler. pp. 1-37.

“Dr. John Sappington: Southern Patriarch in the New West.” By Lynn Morrow. pp.38-60.

“'The Last Tree Cut Down': The End of the Bootheel Frontier, 1880-1930.” By Bonnie Stepenoff. pp. 61-78.

“With Liberty and Justice for All?: The Suppression of the German-American Culture During World War I.” By Chris Richardson. pp. 79-89.

July 1995 (Vol. 89, No. 4)

“'A Most Unexampled Exhibition of Madness and Brutality': Judge Lynch in Saline County, Missouri, 1859.” Part 2. By Thomas G. Dyer. pp. 367-383.

“'I Acted From Principle': William Marcellus McPheeters, Confederate Surgeon.” By Cynthia DeHaven Pitcock and Bill J. Gurley. pp. 384-405.

“Joseph W. Folk and the 'Missouri Idea': The 1904 Governor's Race in Missouri.” By Steven L. Piott. pp. 406-426.

“William Francis English: Educator and Civic Activist.” By William I. Mitchell. pp. 427-446.

April 1995 (Vol. 89, No. 3)

“George Engelmann and the Lure of Frontier Science.” By Michael Long. pp. 251-268.

“'A Most Unexampled Exhibition of Madness and Brutality': Judge Lynch in Saline County, Missouri, 1859.” Part 1. By Thomas G. Dyer. pp. 269-289.

“Catalyst for Terror: The Collapse of the Women's Prison in Kansas City.” By Charles F. Harris. pp. 290-306.

“Merchandising Nature: The H. J. Weber and Sons Nursery.” By Kenneth W. Keller. pp. 307-326.

January 1995 (Vol. 89, No. 2)

“The Making of a Superior Immigrant: George Husmann, 1837-1854.” By Linda Walker Stevens. pp. 119-138.

“Frontier Bridge Building: The Hannibal Bridge at Kansas City, 1867-1869.” By Louis W. Potts and George F.W. Hauck. pp. 139-161.

“Immigrant Cement Workers: The Strike of 1910 in Ilasco, Missouri.” By Gregg Andrews. pp. 162-183.

“Missouri Winter: A Season to Celebrate--and Survive.” pp. 184-196.

October 1994 (Vol. 89, No. 1)

“Prelude to World War I in Missouri.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 1-16.

“'Solomon Burch's Fighting Editor': An Early Poem of Eugene Field.” By Lewis O. Saum. pp. 17-27.

“'This War is Managed Mighty Strange': The Army of Southeastern Missouri, 1862-1863.” By John F. Bradbury, Jr. pp. 28-47.

“John Smith T and the Way West: Filibustering and Expansion on the Missouri Frontier.” By Dick Steward. pp. 48-74.

July 1994 (Vol. 88, No. 4)

“Western America: Landscapes and Indians: An Exhibition.” pp. 367-396.

“Planters and Slavery in Little Dixie.” By R. Douglas Hurt. pp. 397-415.

“The Blackwater Incident.” By Leslie Anders. pp. 416-429.

“Through the Eyes of a Medical Student: A Window on Frontier Life in Kansas City, 1870-1871.” By Lawrence H. Larsen and Nancy J. Hulston. pp. 430-445.

April 1994 (Vol. 88, No. 3)

“'It looks like we are in Paris': The Letters of Jefferson Bridgford.” Edited by Richard E. Ahlborn and Lisa C. Thompson. pp. 243-261.

“Waves of Revivalism in Clay County, 1840-1918.” By Louis W. Potts. pp. 262-278.

“Prohibition Vineyards: The Italian Contribution to Viticulture in Missouri.” By Robert F. Scheef. pp. 279-300.

“The Beginning of LaForge: An Experiement in Rural Homesteading.” By Jeff Hearne. pp. 301-316.

January 1994 (Vol. 88, No. 2)

“Missouri to Murmansk: Chasing the Bolsheviks with Major Edward E. MacMorland, March-July 1919.” By Benjamin D. Rhodes. pp. 123-144.

“Peter Humphries Clark.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 145-156.

“Kate Field: The Story of a Once-Famous St. Louisan.” By Carolyn J. Moss. pp 157-175.

“The Bridge That Spanned the Great Depression.” By Mary Harriet Talbut. pp. 176-188.

October 1993 (Vol. 88, No. 1)

“MU Becomes a System.” By James C. Olson. pp. 1-21.

“To the Disinherited Belongs the Future.” By Amber R. Clifford. pp. 22-28.

“Union Troops and the Civil War in Southwestern Missouri and Northwestern Arkansas.” By Marvin R. Cain and John F. Bradbury, Jr. pp. 29-47.

“Chester A. Franklin and Harry S. Truman: An African-American Conservative and the 'Conversion' of the Future President.” By Thomas D. Wilson. pp. 48-77.

July 1993 (Vol. 87, No. 4)

“Child Labor in the Tiff Mines of Washington County, Missouri.” By George G. Suggs, Jr. pp. 357-371.

“Administrative Treatment of Women Students at Missouri State University, 1868-1899.” By Janice Lee. pp. 372-386.

“Rural Prairieville During Reconstruction.” By Dennis Naglich. pp. 387-402.

“The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, Government and Town Founding, 1846-1861.” By Donald B. Oster. pp. 403-421.

April 1993 (Vol. 87, No. 3)

“Winegrowing in the Hermann Area: Early Years' Chronicle.” By Siegmar Muehl. pp. 233-252.

“The Slave System and the Civil War in Rural Prairieville.” By Dennis Naglich. pp. 253-273.

“A Resurrection of Native Arts and Crafts: The St. Louis World's Fair, 1904.” By Robert A. Trennert. pp. 274-292.

“The 1954 Prison Riot and the Image of the Highway Patrol.” By Roy D. Blunt and Gary R. Kremer. pp. 293-305.

January 1993 (Vol. 87, No. 2)

“Why the Civil War Still Lives.” By James I. Robertson, Jr. pp. 109-130.

“Colonel Donan, Mark Twain and a Campaign That Failed.” By Lewis O. Saum. pp. 131-149.

“Forty Years in the House: A Composite Portrait of Missouri Women Legislators.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 150-167.

“Barak Mattingly and the Failure of the Missouri Republicans.” By Thomas F. Soapes. pp. 168-187.

October 1992 (Vol. 87, No. 1)

“Preserving Our Civil War Battle Flags.” By Leslie Anders. pp. 1-17.

“Farming on the Missouri Frontier: Essays by Philander Draper.” Edited by Arthur G. Draper. pp. 18-35.

“President Harry S. Truman: Independent Baptist from Independence.” By Robert S. Bolt. pp. 36-47.

“Teaching for the Future by Reaching into the Past.” By Don W. Wilson. pp. 48-62.

July 1992 (Vol. 86, No. 4)

“Philippine Duchesne: A Model of Action.” By Barbara O. Korner. pp. 341-362.

“Book Collecting in Missouri: Three 'Custodians of Culture.'” By Robert Alan Shaddy. pp. 363-385.

“Popular Reaction to World War I in Missouri.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 386-395.

“A Political Boss at Bay: Thomas J. Pendergast in Federal Prison, 1939-1940.” By Lawrence H. Larsen. pp. 396-417.

April 1992 (Vol. 86, No. 3)

“Charles Valentine Riley and the Roots of Modern Insect Control.” By Donna A. Brunette. pp. 229-247.

“The Rotary Power Mower and its Inventor: Leonard B. Goodall.” By Leonard E. Goodall. pp. 248-264.

“Milkweed, Machine Guns and Cows: Jefferson County Farmers in World War II.” By Stephen F. Huss. pp. 265-281.

“The Wardman Park Group and Campaign Strategy in the Truman Administration, 1946-1948.” By Gary A. Donaldson. pp. 282-294.

“Lest We Forget: The Missouri Law Enforcement Memorial Foundation.” By Elizabeth Bailey. pp. 295-301.

January 1992 (Vol. 86, No. 2)

“Missouri's 'Monumental Ananias': 'Gene Field Looks Back.” By Lewis O. Saum. pp. 113-126.

“The Significant Skirmish: The Battle of Boonville, June 17, 1861.” By Paul Rorvig. pp. 127-148.

“A German Immigrant in Postbellum Fulton.” By Linda Schelbitzki Pickle. pp. 149-163.

Dr. Arthur Nelson for Governor: The 1924 Campaign.” By William B. Claycomb. pp. 164-180.

October 1991 (Vol. 86, No. 1)

“The Franklin Debate Society: Culture on the Missouri Frontier.” By Louis W. Potts. pp.1-21.

“'Ho, for Kansas': The Southwest Expedition of 1860.” By Phillip T. Tucker. pp. 22-36.

“Nathaniel C. Bruce, Black Education and the 'Tuskegee of the Midwest.'” By Patrick J. Huber and Gary R. Kremer. pp. 37-54.

“Admiral Sidney W. Souers and President Truman.” By Sara L. Sale. pp. 55-71.

July 1991 (Vol. 85, No. 4)

“Hermann's 'Free Men': 1850s German-American Religious Rationalism.” By Siegmar Muehl. pp. 361-380.

“Daniel Marsh Frost, C.S.A.” By Robert E. Miller. pp. 381-401.

“Mother and Teacher as Missouri State Penitentiary Inmates: Goldman and O'Hare, 1917-1920.” By Bonnie Stepenoff. pp. 402-421.

Desegregation in a Border State: The Example of Joplin, Missouri.” By Lori Bogle. pp. 422-440.

April 1991 (Vol. 85, No. 3)

“Odyssey to an Authentication: A George Caleb Bingham Colorado Landscape.” By Nelson A. Rieger. pp. 237-263.

“Confederate Col. A. C. Riley, His Reports and Letters.” Part 2. Edited by H. Riley Bock. pp. 264-287.

“Dr. J. C. Parrish, Frontier Accoucheur.” By Charles R. King. pp. 288-303.

“Grand Opera in St. Louis, 1886: A Championship Season?” By Harlan Jennings. pp. 304-320.

January 1991 (Vol. 85, No. 2)

“Keeping History Alive in a Time-Present World.” By Ron Powers. pp. 117-130.

“The Political Impact of the Depression on Missouri, 1929-1940.” By J. Christopher Schnell, Richard J. Collings and David W. Dillard. pp. 131-157.

“Confederate Col. A. C. Riley, His Reports and Letters.” Part 1. Edited by H. Riley Bock. pp. 158-181.

October 1990 (Vol. 85, No. 1)

“Missouri and the American Civil War Novel.” By Larry Olpin. pp. 1-20.

“'Temples Stand, Temples Fall': The Utopian Vision of Wilhelm Keil.” By Carol Piper Heming. pp. 21-39.

“Women Pioneers in the Missouri Legislature.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 40-52.

“Jeff Thompson's Unsuccessful Quest for a Confederate Generalship.” By Stephen Davis. pp. 53-65.

July 1990 (Vol. 84, No. 4)

“Richard S. Brownlee II (1918-1990).” By James W. Goodrich. pp. 375-383.

“Marie Turner Harvey and the Rural Life Movement.” By Ruth Warner Towne. pp. 384-403.

“The Strange Story of Major General Franz Sigel: Leader and Retreater.” By Lawrence E. Giffen, Sr. pp. 404-427.

“Theodore Pease Russell: Connecticut Yankee to Missouri Jeffersonian.” By Lynn Morrow. pp. 428-446.

April 1990 (Vol. 84, No. 3)

“The Kansas City Free Speech Fight of 1911.” By Tom N. McInnis. pp. 253-269.

“'We Have Whipped Them Beautifully': The Arkansas Press and Wilson's Creek.” By Brian Dirck. pp. 270-292.

“Strangers to Domestic Virtues: Nineteenth-Century Women in the Missouri Prison.” By Gary R. Kremer. pp. 293-310.

“Keeping the Powder Dry: Senator Harry S. Truman and Democratic Interventionism, 1935-1941.” By Mark Steven Wilburn. pp. 311-337.

January 1990 (Vol. 84, No. 2)

“Thomas Hart Benton Remembered.” By Lyman Field. pp. 131-165.

“Clarence Cannon, the Corn Cob Pipe, and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff.” By Charles A. Jarvis. pp. 151-165.

“Texans Invade Missouri: The Cape Girardeau Raid, 1863.” By Anne J. Bailey. pp. 166-187.

October 1989 (Vol. 84, No. 1)

“A Turbulent Half-Century: The Early Years of the University of Missouri.” By James C. Olson. pp. 1-22.

“Presidents and the Presidency.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 23-41.

“Rise Like a Phoenix: The Creation of Francis Quadrangle.” By Pamela Ann Miner. pp. 42-62.

“Establishing the School of Journalism.” By William H. Taft. pp. 63-83.

“Selected Bibliography: University of Missouri-Columbia.” Compiled by Ian A. Horwood. pp. 84-85.

July 1989 (Vol. 83, No. 4)

“Selden P. Spencer, Senate Moderates and the League of Nations.” By Herbert F. Margulies. pp. 373-394.

“The Study of German at the Warrensburg Normal School.” By Susan Lee Pentlin. pp. 395-416.

“Missouri Women in Historical Writing.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 417-428.

“The Frontiers of Edward S. Curtis.” By Carl Kelso, Jr. pp. 429-447.

“Lewis E. Atherton (1905-1989). By James W. Goodrich. pp. 448-458.

April 1989 (Vol. 83, No. 3)

“'Dear Mamma': The Family Letters of Harry S. Truman.” By Glenda Riley. pp. 249-270.

“The Great-Little Battle of Pilot Knob.” Part 2. By Joseph Conan Thompson. pp. 271-294.

“German Americans in the St. Louis Region, 1840-1860.” By Bonnie J. Krause. pp. 295-310.

“Hard Times Chronicler--An Ohio Teacher in Western Missouri, 1879-1881.” By J. Merton England. pp. 311-329.

January 1989 (Vol. 83, No. 2)

“Richard B. Russell and Lyndon B. Johnson: The Story of a Strange Friendship.” By Gilbert C. Fite. pp. 125-138.

“The Great-Little Battle of Pilot Knob.” Part 1. By Joseph Conan Thompson. pp. 139-160.

“The Architectural Career of Nelle Peters.” By George Ehrlich and Sherry Piland. pp. 161-176.

“Daniel R. Fitzpatrick: A Missouri Cartoonist.” By Susan Yeshilada. pp. 177-186.

October 1988 (Vol. 83, No. 1)

“The Presidential Election of 1940 in Missouri.” By Philip A. Grant, Jr. pp. 1-16.

“Being Special: Women Students at the Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 17-35.

“Emancipation in Missouri.” By Michael Fellman. pp. 36-56.

“The First Jews of St. Louis.” By Walter Ehrlich. pp. 57-76.

July 1988 (Vol. 82, No. 4)

“Fremont and the Western Department.” By Robert L. Turkoly-Joczik. pp. 363-385.

“The Congressional Campaign of Luella St. Clair Moss.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 386-407.

“Which Came First?--65 Years of Broadcasting in Kansas City.” By William James Ryan. pp. 408-423.

“Lutheran Families in St. Louis and Perry County, Missouri, 1839-1870.” By Louis Buenger Robbert. pp. 424-438.

April 1988 (Vol. 82, No. 3)

“Vance Randolph's Photographic Views of the Ozarks.” By John R. Hensley. pp. 251-266.

“J. B. Powell and the Missouri-China Connection.” By Robert Stevens. pp. 267-279.

“Schulhaus to Schoolhouse: The German School at Herman, Missouri, 1839-1955.” By Carol Piper Heming. pp. 280-298.

“A Survey of Historical Writing in Missouri from 1860.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 299-311.

January 1988 (Vol. 82, No. 2)

“Naught for Your Comfort: An Antidote to Bicentennial Euphoria.” By Gerald T. Dunne. pp. 147-152.

“The Authentic Image of Daniel Boone.” By Clifford Amyx. pp. 153-164.

“Andrew Tau: Missouri Photographer.” By Susan Yeshilada. pp. 165-178.

“Antebellum Missouri in Historical Perspective.” By William E. Foley. pp. 179-190.

October 1987 (Vol. 82, No. 1)

“The Debate Over Slavery on the Eve of the Charleston Convention.” By Ronald C. Woolsey. pp. 1-23.

“Lincoln University's Involvement with the Sharecropper Demonstration in Southeast Missouri, 1939-1940.” By Lorenzo J. Greene. pp. 24-50.

“Reflections on Public Welfare in Washington County, Missouri, 1939-1941.” By Clarence R. Keathley. pp. 51-70.

“Dunklin County, Charles P. Chouteau, and the Courtship of the Iron Horse.” By John Hall Dalton, Jr. pp. 71-96.

July 1987 (Vol. 81, No. 4)

“Nicholas de Finiels: Mapping the Mississippi & Missouri Rivers, 1797-1798.” By W. Raymond Wood. pp. 387-402.

“The Plight of the People in the Sharecroppers' Demonstration in Southeast Missouri.” By Arvarh E. Strickland. pp. 403-416.

“The Demise of O'Reilly Hospital and the Beginning of Evangel College, 1946-1955.” By Lawrence J. Nelson. pp. 417-446.

“Freedom and Regret: The Dilemma of Kate Chopin.” By Bonnie Stepenoff. pp. 447-466.

April 1987 (Vol. 81, No. 3)

“Edgar Snow: China Hand From Missouri.” By John Maxwell Hamilton. pp. 253-274.

“Fannie Hurst: A Missouri Girl Makes Good.” By Cynthia Ann Brandimarte. pp. 275-295.

“The Court Martial of Lieutenant Nathaniel Lyon.” By Christopher W. Phillips. pp. 296-308.

“A Pictorial Glimpse of Life Aboard the Brownville, 1960s.” Compiled by Leona S. Morris. pp. 309-327.

“Missouri, Center of Population of the United States.” By Walter A. Schroeder. pp. 328-332.

January 1987 (Vol. 81, No. 2)

“Truman and Missouri.” By Richard S. Kirkendall. pp. 127-140.

“Married Women and the Right to Teach in St. Louis, 1941-1948.” By Sharon Pedersen. pp. 141-158.

“Benjamin Franklin Cheatham at Belmont.” By TImothy D. Johnson. pp. 159-172.

“Cheltenham: The Search for Bliss in Missouri.” By Jeanette C. Lauer and Robert H. Lauer. pp. 173-183.

October 1986 (Vol. 81, No. 1)

“Federal Justice on the Santa Fe Trail: The Murder of Antonio José Chavez.” By Larry D. Ball. pp. 1-17.

“Eduard Mühl: 1800-1854, Missouri Editor, Religious Free-Thinker and Fighter for Human Rights.” By Siegmar Muehl. pp. 18-36.

“The Popular Image of Blacks vs. the Birthrights.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 37-52.

“A Pill-Grimage: The Life and Times of John Richie Ferguson, 1842-1929.” Edited by Elizabeth A. Wilkinson. pp. 53-72.

July 1986 (Vol. 80, No. 4)

“Missouri and the Columbian Exposition of 1893.” By Frank A. Cassell. pp. 369-394.

“Nothing Seemed Impossible: Frank N. Moore and the Mineral Cities Railway.” By Robert E. Smith. pp. 395-421.

“'One of the Ruling Class,' Thomas Caute Reynolds: The Second Confederate Governer of Missouri.” By Robert E. Miller. pp. 422-448.

April 1986 (Vol. 80, No. 3)

“In the Shadow of Table Rock Dam: Army Corps of Engineers, Civil Engineering & Local Communities.” By John R. Hensley. pp. 255-272.

“'Few Men But Many Widows . . . ': The Daniel Fogle Letters, August 8-September 4, 1867.” Edited by James W. Goodrich and Donald B. Oster. pp. 273-303.

“The West Illustrated: Meyer's Views of Missouri River Towns.” By David Boutros. pp. 304-320.

January 1986 (Vol. 80, No. 2)

“History and Newspapering.” By James J. Fisher. pp. 123-133.

“The Epic March of Doniphan's Missourians.” By Kimball Clark. pp. 134-155.

“Who's on Second: The 1944 Democratic Vice Presidential Nomination.” By Brenda L. Heaster. pp. 156-175.

“To the Victor Belongs the Spoils.” By Andy Collins. pp. 176-195.

October 1985 (Vol. 80, No. 1)

“Thomas Hart Benton's Huck Finn Illustrations Commemorate Mark Twain.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 1-13.

“The A. B. Cross Lumber Company, 1858-1871.” By George Ehrlich and Peggy E. Schrock. pp. 14-32.

“General Mosby M. Parsons: Missouri Secessionist.” By Robert E. Miller. pp. 33-57.

“Fighting for Democracy in St. Louis: Civil Rights During World War II.” By Patricia L. Adams. pp. 58-75.

July 1985 (Vol. 79, No. 4)

“Benton v. Barton: The Formation of the Second-Party System in Missouri.” By Perry McCandless. pp. 425-438.

“Stepchild of the University: The Separationist Controvery at the Missouri School of Mines, 1937-1949.” By Jack B. Ridley. pp. 439-455.

“'She Got to Berlin': Virginia Irwin, St. Louis Post-Dispatch War Correspondent.” By Anne R. Kenney. pp. 456-479.

“Missouri Governors: A Composite Portrayal.” By Stanley B. Botner. pp. 480-486.

April 1985 (Vol. 79, No. 3)

“Stereotypes and Reality: Nineteenth-Century German Women in Missouri.” By Linda S. Pickle. pp. 291-312.

“A Story Behind the Story of the Arkansas and the Carondelet.” By Mary Emerson Branch. pp. 313-331.

“Fighting the Ghosts at Lone Jack.” By Leslie Anders. pp. 332-356.

“Pains of Birth and Adolescence: The University of Missouri and its Rolla Campus, 1871-1915.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 357-372.

January 1985 (Vol. 79, No. 2)

“The Taos Connection: New Mexican Art in Missouri's Capitol.” By Bob Priddy. pp. 143-166.

“Proud Confederate: Thomas Lowndes Snead of Missouri.” By Robert E. Miller. pp. 167-191.

“Shades of Empire: Beach De-Haven Home Talent Shows in Missouri.” By Lorelei F. Eckey. pp. 192-208.

“Birth Pangs of a Teachers Union: The St. Louis Story.” Part 2. By Walter Ehrlich. pp. 209-228.

October 1984 (Vol. 79, No. 1)

“Slave Freedom Suits Before Dred Scott: The Case of Marie Jean Scypion's Descendants.” By William E. Foley. pp. 1-23.

“Birth Pangs of a Teachers Union: The St. Louis Story.” Part 1. By Walter Ehrlich. pp. 24-42.

“Pershing After the Armistice, 1918-1919.” By Donald Smythe. pp. 43-64.

“'Life is Uncertain . . . ': Willard Hall Mendenhall's 1862 Civil War Diary. Part 2. Edited by Margaret Mendenhall Frazier and James W. Goodrich. pp. 65-88.

July 1984 (Vol. 78, No. 4)

“Yankee Merchants in a Border City: A Look at St. Louis Businessmen in the 1850s.” By James Neal Primm. pp. 375-386.

“Brother Hal: The Preaching Career of Harold Bell Wright.” By Charles T. Jones. pp. 387-413.

“And It Was Red: Missouri's New Supreme Court Building, 1907.” By Bonnie Wright, Robert Durant Smith and Haden D. Smith. pp. 414-427.

“'Life is Uncertain . . . ': Willard Hall Mendenhall's 1862 Civil War Diary. Part 1. Edited by Margaret Mendenhall Frazier and James W. Goodrich. pp. 428-452.

April 1984 (Vol. 78, No. 3)

“Fulton's Distinguished Visitors: Truman and Churchill, 1946.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 277-292.

“India Edwards: Distaff Politician of the Truman Era.” By Georgia Cook Morgan. pp. 293-310.

“A Visit to the White House, 1947: The Diary of Vic H. Housholder.” Edited by Robert H. Ferrell. pp. 311-336.

January 1984 (Vol. 78, No. 2)

“Race Relations in St. Louis 1865-1916.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 123-136.

“Planks for Industry.” By William F. Farr. pp. 137-143.

“Osterhaus in Missouri: A Study in German-American Loyalty.” By Earl J. Hess. pp. 144-167.

“Joseph Washington McClure: Entrepreneur, Politician, Citizen.” By Lynn Morrow. pp. 168-201.

“Missouri's Care of the Indigent Aged.” By David D. March. pp. 202-218.

October 1983 (Vol. 78, No. 1)

“The Western Historical Manuscripts Collection of the University of Missouri, 1943-1983.” By Lewis E. Atherton. pp. 1-13.

“The 'Missouri Meerschaum.' Pipe.” By Paula McNeill Quirk. pp. 14-22.

“Vernacular Building Process in Missouri: Nathaniel Leonard's Activities, 1825-1870.” By James M. Denny. pp. 23-50.

“A 'Needless Effusion of Blood': The Confederate Missouri Brigade and Hood's Invasion of Tennessee in 1864.” By Douglas J. Ernest. pp. 51-77.

July 1983 (Vol. 77, No. 4)

“Missouri Through a German's Eyes: Franz von Löher on St. Louis and Hermann.” By Frederic Trautmann. pp. 367-394.

“The Rhetoric of the 1896 Republican National Convention at St. Louis.” By Jeffrey Nelson. pp. 395-408.

“The West Becomes a Problem: The Missouri Controversy and Slavery Expansion as the Southern Dilemma.” By Ronald C. Woolsey. pp. 409-432.

April 1983 (Vol. 77, No. 3)

“The Lower Mississippi in 1803: The Travelers' View.” By Michael Allen. pp. 253-271.

“John Trousdale Coffee: Lawyer, Politician, Confederate.” By John K. Hulston and James W. Goodrich. pp. 272-295.

“The St. Louis Provident Association: An Elitist War on Poverty, 1860-1899.” By Jeanette C. Lauer and Robert H. Lauer. pp. 296-309.

“The Making of Missouri's Equal Pay Law and the Legislative Process.” By Byron G. Lander. pp. 310-327.

January 1983 (Vol. 77, No. 2)

“The Lewis and Clark Expedition's Silent Partners: The Chouteau Brothers of St. Louis.” By William E. Foley. pp. 131-146.

“Robert Ormsby Sweeny: Some Civil War Sketches.” By James W. Goodrich. pp. 147-169.

“Patients, Politics and Physicians: The Struggle for Control of State Lunatic Asylum No. 1, Fulton, Missouri.” By Donald H. Ewalt, Jr. pp. 170-188.

“A Chinese Memoir of the University of Missouri, 1920-1923.” Translated by David R. Knechtges. Annotated by Lewis O. Saum. pp. 189-207.

October 1982 (Vol. 77, No. 1)

“The Santa Fe Trader as Mercantile Capitalist.” By Lewis E. Atherton. pp. 1-12.

“Alexander Campbell and the Missouri Disciples of Christ, 1852.” By Mary K. Dains. pp. 13-46.

“Convict Labor, The Montserrat Experience.” By Bruce Reynolds. pp. 47-63.

“An Insurgent in the Truman Cabinet: Henry A. Wallace's Effort to Redirect Foreign Policy.” By John L. Kelley. pp. 64-93.

July 1982 (Vol. 76, No. 4)

“St. Louis's Transition Decade, 1819-1830.” By Glen E. Holt. pp. 365-381.

“Public Advocacy and the Establishment of the Missouri State Highway Patrol.” By V. Lonnie Lawson. pp. 382-404.

“Courting the Great Western Railway: An Episode of Town Rivalry.” By H. Roger Grant. pp. 405-420.

“Charles Kleinsorge: Missouri to California, 1854.” Edited and translated by Edward Bode. pp. 421-446.

April 1982 (Vol. 76, No. 3)

“William Clark's Mapping in Missouri, 1803-1804.” By W. Raymond Wood. pp. 241-252.

“Missouri County Organization, 1812-1876.” By Marian M. Ohman. pp. 253-281.

“A Search for the Rising Tide: The Letters of Nathaniel Leonard, 1820-1824.” By Jeffrey L. Gall. pp. 282-301.

“Creating the Dream: Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 1933-1935.” By Sharon A. Brown. pp. 302-326.

January 1982 (Vol. 76, No. 2)

“Schools for Blacks: J. Milton Turner in Reconstruction Missouri.” By Lawrence O. Christensen. pp. 121-135.

“Antoine Valentin De Gruy: Early Missouri Explorer.” By Carl J. Ekberg. pp. 136-150.

“St. Louis and the 1880 Census: The Shock of Collective Failure.” By Jeanette C. Lauer and Robert H. Lauer. pp. 151-163.

“Truman, Berlin and the 1948 Election.” By Fred B. Misse. pp. 164-173.

“Zagonyi.” By Robert E. Miller. pp. 174-192.

October 1981 (Vol. 76, No. 1)

“The Monroe Drug Company 1876-1976 A Century of Chemical Enterprise.” By Robert G. Schultz. pp. 1-21.

“This Perpetual Shadow-Taking: The Lively Art of John Fitzgibbon.” By Bonnie Wright. pp. 22-30.

“Missouri and the Beef Trust: Consumer Action and Investigation, 1902.” By Steven L. Piott. pp. 31-52.

“The 12th Missouri Infantry: A Socio-Military Profile of a Union Regiment.” By Earl J. Hess. pp. 53-77.

The Missouri Historical Review is a benefit of membership in The State Historical Society of Missouri.

For more information contact SHSMO at contact@shsmo.org